Original Article

Implementation of Modified Whale Optimization Algorithm in Two-Degree-of-Freedom Fractional Order–Fuzzy-ProportionalIntegral-Derivative Controller for Automatic Generation Control in a Multi-Area Interconnected Power System


Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India


Department of Electrical Engg., Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

ELECTRICA 2023; 23: 281-293
DOI: 10.5152/electrica.2022.22045
Read: 98 Downloads: 34 Published: 01 May 2023

Any mismatch of power demand and power generation in an interconnected electrical power system causes deviances in tie-line power and frequencies. To overcome this issue, an automatic generation control system equipped with intelligent controllers is used in the power system. This study presents a maiden write-up on a two-d egree -of-f reedo m fractional order –fuzz y-pro porti onal- integ ral-d eriva tive (2DOF-FO-FuzzyPID) controller employed in an interconnected system with different nonlinearities. The controller proposed along with conventional controllers has its gains optimally enumerated by the application of modified whale optimization algorithm (MWOA). Besides this, the potency of the MWOA algorithm over WOA algorithm is examined through some popular benchmark functions. The superior transient response yielded by 2DOF-FO-FuzzyPID controller over PID and fractional-order propo rtion al-in tegra l-der ivati ve controllers of the proposed test system is evaluated. Further, the effectiveness of the projected controller is evaluated by taking the system’s nonlinearities and abrupt load perturbation, which acknowledges the robustness of the controller. In spite of these attributes, the stability and relative stability of the 2DOF-FO-FuzzyPID controller is determined in the frequency domain.

Cite this article as: D. Sitikantha, N. Kumar Jena, D. Das and B. Kumar Sahu, “Implementation of modified whale optimization algorithm in two-degree-of-freedom fractional order–fuzzy-proportional-integral-derivative controller for automatic generation control in a multi-area interconnected power system,” Electrica, 23(2), 281-293, 2023.

EISSN 2619-9831